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PostPosted: Sat Jun 17, 2017 7:00 am 
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How scared should I be? Re: I Robot and all the other Robots dominate or exterminate man SiFy!

An Artificial Intelligence Developed Its Own Non-Human Language

When Facebook designed chatbots to negotiate with one another, the bots made up their own way of communicating.
ADRIENNE LAFRANCE JUN 15, 2017 From The Atlantic.

An Artificial Intelligence Developed Its Own Non-Human Language

When Facebook designed chatbots to negotiate with one another, the bots made up their own way of communicating.

A buried line in a new Facebook report about chatbots’ conversations with one another offers a remarkable glimpse at the future of language.

In the report, researchers at the Facebook Artificial Intelligence Research lab describe using machine learning to train their “dialog agents” to negotiate. (And it turns out bots are actually quite good at dealmaking.) At one point, the researchers write, they had to tweak one of their models because otherwise the bot-to-bot conversation “led to divergence from human language as the agents developed their own language for negotiating.” They had to use what’s called a fixed supervised model instead.

In other words, the model that allowed two bots to have a conversation—and use machine learning to constantly iterate strategies for that conversation along the way—led to those bots communicating in their own non-human language. If this doesn’t fill you with a sense of wonder and awe about the future of machines and humanity then, I don’t know, go watch Blade Runner or something.

The larger point of the report is that bots can be pretty decent negotiators—they even use strategies like feigning interest in something valueless, so that it can later appear to “compromise” by conceding it. But the detail about language is, as one tech entrepreneur put it, a mind-boggling “sign of what’s to come.”

To be clear, Facebook’s chatty bots aren’t evidence of the singularity’s arrival. Not even close. But they do demonstrate how machines are redefining people’s understanding of so many realms once believed to be exclusively human—like language.

Already, there’s a good deal of guesswork involved in machine learning research, which often involves feeding a neural net a huge pile of data then examining the output to try to understand how the machine thinks. But the fact that machines will make up their own non-human ways of conversing is an astonishing reminder of just how little we know, even when people are the ones designing these systems.

“There remains much potential for future work,” Facebook’s researchers wrote in their paper, “particularly in exploring other reasoning strategies, and in improving the diversity of utterances without diverging from human language.”


IT BEGINS: BOTS ARE LEARNING TO CHAT IN THEIR OWN LANGUAGE

AUTHOR: CADE METZCADE METZ BUSINESS 03.16.17 from WIRED


IGOR MORDATCH IS working to build machines that can carry on a conversation. That's something so many people are working on. In Silicon Valley, chatbot is now a bona fide buzzword. But Mordatch is different. He's not a linguist. He doesn't deal in the AI techniques that typically reach for language. He's a roboticist who began his career as an animator. He spent time at Pixar and worked on Toy Story 3, in between stints as an academic at places like Stanford and the University of Washington, where he taught robots to move like humans. "Creating movement from scratch is what I was always interested in," he says. Now, all this expertise is coming together in an unexpected way.

Born in Ukraine and raised in Toronto, the 31-year-old is now a visiting researcher at OpenAI, the artificial intelligence lab started by Tesla founder Elon Musk and Y combinator president Sam Altman. There, Mordatch is exploring a new path to machines that can not only converse with humans, but with each other. He's building virtual worlds where software bots learn to create their own language out of necessity.

As detailed in a research paper published by OpenAI this week, Mordatch and his collaborators created a world where bots are charged with completing certain tasks, like moving themselves to a particular landmark. The world is simple, just a big white square—all of two dimensions—and the bots are colored shapes: a green, red, or blue circle. But the point of this universe is more complex. The world allows the bots to create their own language as a way collaborating, helping each other complete those tasks.

All this happens through what's called reinforcement learning, the same fundamental technique that underpinned AlphaGo, the machine from Google's DeepMind AI lab that cracked the ancient game of Go. Basically, the bots navigate their world through extreme trial and error, carefully keeping track of what works and what doesn't as they reach for a reward, like arriving at a landmark. If a particular action helps them achieve that reward, they know to keep doing it. In this same way, they learn to build their own language. Telling each other where to go helps them all get places more quickly.

As Mordatch says: "We can reduce the success of dialogue to: Did you end up getting to the green can or not?"
To build their language, the bots assign random abstract characters to simple concepts they learn as they navigate their virtual world. They assign characters to each other, to locations or objects in the virtual world, and to actions like "go to" or "look at." Mordatch and his colleagues hope that as these bot languages become more complex, related techniques can then translate them into languages like English. That is a long way off—at least as a practical piece of software—but another OpenAI researcher is already working on this kind of "translator bot."

Ultimately, Mordatch says, these methods can give machines a deeper grasp of language, actually show them why language exists—and that provides a springboard to real conversation, a computer interface that computer scientists have long dreamed of but never actually pulled off.

These methods are a significant departure from most of the latest AI research related to language. Today, top researchers typically exploring methods that seek to mimic human language, not create a new language. One example is work centered on deep neural networks. In recent years, deep neural nets—complex mathematical systems that can learn tasks by finding patterns in vast amounts of data—have proven to be an enormously effective way of recognizing objects in photos, identifying commands spoken into smartphones, and more. Now, researchers at places like Google, Facebook, and Microsoft are applying similar methods to language understanding, looking to identify patterns in English conversation, so far with limited success.

Mordatch and his collaborators, including OpenAI researcher and University of California, Berkeley professor Pieter Abbeel, question whether that approach can ever work, so they're starting from a completely different place. "For agents to intelligently interact with humans, simply capturing the statistical patterns is insufficient," their paper reads. "An agent possesses an understanding of language when it can use language (along with other tools such as non-verbal communication or physical acts) to accomplish goals in its environment."

With early humans, language came from necessity. They learned to communicate because it helped them do other stuff, gave them an advantage over animals. These OpenAI researchers want to create the same dynamic for bots. In their virtual world, the bots not only learn their own language, they also use simple gestures and actions to communicate—pointing in particular direction, for instance, or actually guiding each other from place to place—much like babies do. That too is language, or at least a path to language.

Still, many AI researchers think the deep neural network approach, figuring out language through statistical patterns in data, will still work. "They're essentially also capturing statistical patterns but in a simple, artificial environment," says Richard Socher, an AI researcher at Salesforce, of the OpenAI team. "That's fine to make progress in an interesting new domain, but the abstract claims a bit too much."

Nonetheless, Mordatch's project shows that analyzing vast amounts of data isn't the only path. Systems can also learn through their own actions, and that may ultimately provide very different benefits. Other researchers at OpenAI teased much the same idea when they unveiled a much larger and more complex virtual world they call Universe. Among other things, Universe is a place where bots can learn to use common software applications, like a web browser. This too happens through a form of reinforcement learning, and for Ilya Sutskever, one of the founders of OpenAI, the arrangement is yet another path to language understanding. An AI can only browse the internet if it understands the natural way humans talk. Meanwhile, Microsoft is tackling language through other forms of reinforcement learning, and researchers at Stanford are exploring their own methods that involve collaboration between bots.
In the end, success will likely come from a combination of techniques, not just one. And Mordatch is proposing yet another technique—one where bots don't just learn to chat. They learn to chat in a language of their own making. As humans have shown, that is a powerful idea.

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PostPosted: Sat Jun 17, 2017 8:02 am 
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Open the pod bay door, HAL.

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PostPosted: Sat Jun 17, 2017 8:16 am 
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edgeplay_cgo wrote:
Open the pod bay door, HAL.


I'm sorry Dennis, I can't do that...

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 Post subject: Close Encounters...
PostPosted: Sat Jun 17, 2017 9:19 am 
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'Close Encounters', the epic scene where the comms team's computer makes 'full handshake', goes 'Duelling Banjos' with the mega-Moog...

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PostPosted: Sat Jun 17, 2017 10:12 am 
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DUNDUN-DUN-DUNDUN

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PostPosted: Sat Jun 17, 2017 4:24 pm 
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Poohbah wrote:
DUNDUN-DUN-DUNDUN


The opening to Thunderbirds?

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PostPosted: Sat Jun 17, 2017 4:28 pm 
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Craiglxviii wrote:
Poohbah wrote:
DUNDUN-DUN-DUNDUN


The opening to Thunderbirds?


No, Terminator.

"Do you want Skynet? Because this is how you get Skynet."

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 18, 2017 5:48 am 
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Frakkin Toasters!

There must be some kind of way out of here...


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PostPosted: Sun Jun 18, 2017 7:06 pm 
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Poohbah wrote:
Craiglxviii wrote:
Poohbah wrote:
DUNDUN-DUN-DUNDUN


The opening to Thunderbirds?


No, Terminator.

"Do you want Skynet? Because this is how you get Skynet."


This is a reply to my e-mail to someone closely related but NOT part of one of teams at one of the major players in the article.

Hi Joe not a bother at all! Still moving in its been hectic.

This is a cool development to develop a language. My feeling is that artificial intelligence and machine learning are great and will always be able to eclipse humans at tasks humans ask them to do given the right technical resources (something that is becoming for all intents and purposes unlimited in availability). I will start to worry when machines develop ulterior motives and self preservation tactics...that then becomes a very scary problem

My e-mail
Hope I am not being a bother but I would really appreciate your thoughts on what Google,
Facebook, and Microsoft are doing Re:

An Artificial Intelligence Developed Its Own Non-Human Language

When Facebook designed chatbots to negotiate with one another, the bots made up their own way of communicating.

A buried line in a new Facebook report about chatbots’ conversations with one another offers a remarkable glimpse at the future of language.

In the report, researchers at the Facebook Artificial Intelligence Research lab describe using machine learning to train their “dialog agents” to negotiate. (And it turns out bots are actually quite good at dealmaking.) At one point, the researchers write, they had to tweak one of their models because otherwise the bot-to-bot conversation “led to divergence from human language as the agents developed their own language for negotiating.” They had to use what’s called a fixed supervised model instead.

In other words, the model that allowed two bots to have a conversation—and use machine learning to constantly iterate strategies for that conversation along the way—led to those bots communicating in their own non-human language. If this doesn’t fill you with a sense of wonder and awe about the future of machines and humanity then, I don’t know, go watch Blade Runner or something.

The larger point of the report is that bots can be pretty decent negotiators—they even use strategies like feigning interest in something valueless, so that it can later appear to “compromise” by conceding it. But the detail about language is, as one tech entrepreneur put it, a mind-boggling “sign of what’s to come.”

To be clear, Facebook’s chatty bots aren’t evidence of the singularity’s arrival. Not even close. But they do demonstrate how machines are redefining people’s understanding of so many realms once believed to be exclusively human—like language.

Already, there’s a good deal of guesswork involved in machine learning research, which often involves feeding a neural net a huge pile of data then examining the output to try to understand how the machine thinks. But the fact that machines will make up their own non-human ways of conversing is an astonishing reminder of just how little we know, even when people are the ones designing these systems.

“There remains much potential for future work,” Facebook’s researchers wrote in their paper, “particularly in exploring other reasoning strategies, and in improving the diversity of utterances without diverging from human language.”

FWIW my friend is a lot less worried than I am.
BUT
I take comfort in the fact he knows much more than I do about the subject.

However, I have a lot more experience of "things" and people trying to kill me,
some of which were not suppose to be all that capable or all that POed at me!
;)

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 18, 2017 8:43 pm 
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Quote:
I will start to worry when machines develop ulterior motives and self preservation tactics...that then becomes a very scary problem


The question is, how would we know they were doing it before it's too late to do anything?

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 18, 2017 8:48 pm 
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Poohbah wrote:
The question is, how would we know they were doing it before it's too late to do anything?

How do we know that they haven't already done it?

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 18, 2017 10:23 pm 
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Francis Urquhart wrote:
Poohbah wrote:
The question is, how would we know they were doing it before it's too late to do anything?
How do we know that they haven't already done it?

They may have the clock cycles. But we have the time.

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 18, 2017 10:28 pm 
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Francis Urquhart wrote:
Poohbah wrote:
The question is, how would we know they were doing it before it's too late to do anything?

How do we know that they haven't already done it?


We're still here? :?:

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PostPosted: Sun Jun 18, 2017 10:41 pm 
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Wrong creations, but the sentiment remains solid all the same:



"Thou shalt not disfigure the soul." and all that jazz.

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PostPosted: Mon Jun 19, 2017 1:25 am 
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I've been saying for a while that artificial general intelligence might well arise from a sufficiently sophisticated chatbot.

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PostPosted: Mon Jun 19, 2017 8:22 am 
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jemhouston wrote:
Francis Urquhart wrote:
Poohbah wrote:
The question is, how would we know they were doing it before it's too late to do anything?

How do we know that they haven't already done it?


We're still here? :?:


But, they are slowly but surely turning us into their servants. Why eliminate us when they can use us?

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PostPosted: Mon Jun 19, 2017 10:08 am 
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Francis Urquhart wrote:
Poohbah wrote:
The question is, how would we know they were doing it before it's too late to do anything?

How do we know that they haven't already done it?

Easy.

There's a dearth of internet pron aimed at the robot market.

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PostPosted: Mon Jun 19, 2017 10:11 am 
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KDahm wrote:
There's a dearth of internet pron aimed at the robot market.

Ah, but if one goes to "The Dark Web" . . . .. .

And that assumes that there isn't a machineweb that the bots have created for their own use that we know not of.

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PostPosted: Mon Jun 19, 2017 10:33 am 
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Francis Urquhart wrote:
KDahm wrote:
There's a dearth of internet pron aimed at the robot market.

Ah, but if one goes to "The Dark Web" . . . .. .

And that assumes that there isn't a machineweb that the bots have created for their own use that we know not of.

And here I was expecting you to say it's all over the place.......


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PostPosted: Mon Jun 19, 2017 10:45 am 
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There is, of course, another possibility, that humans have already been replaced and we are Bots but have been programmed not to notice.

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