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PostPosted: Sun Aug 06, 2017 10:33 pm 
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The Ballistic Missile Cruisers

Strategic missiles played a major part in the development of the post-World War II Navy. Early experiments with captured German V-1 and V-2 rockets eventually led to the deployment of Regulus cruise missiles aboard submarines and cruisers and Polaris ballistic missiles aboard submarines. Ballistic missiles were also considered for use aboard surface ships; many designs were drawn up for carrying Polaris aboard virtually every type of ship - aircraft carriers, battleships, cruisers, and even merchant ships were considered, while test launches were carried out from the Italian cruiser GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI and several ships, including the nuclear cruiser LONG BEACH, were built with foundations for Polaris tubes, before the Navy’s ballistic missiles become the sole province of the submarine service.

Among the more serious and more notable proposals for Polaris surface ships were conversions of the incomplete large cruiser HAWAII and the mothballed JUNEAU class antiaircraft cruisers, as well as the construction of ships built for the purpose. No work was ever carried out, but what if the Navy had decided to build a squadron of ballistic missile cruisers? What then?

From the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships That Never Were

HAWAII
(as laid down: CB-3, dp. 27,500; l. 808’6”; b. 90’10”; dr. 27’1”; s. 33k.; a. 9 12”, 12 5”; cl. ALASKA)
(as completed: CBG-1, a. 2 Talos (156 missiles), 2 Tartar (84 missiles), 1 ASROC, 20 Polaris, 2 triple tt., 2 helicopters; cl. HAWAII)

HAWAII was laid down 20 December 1943 by the New York Shipbuilding Corp., Camden, N.J., as a large cruiser, CB-3; launched 3 November 1945, sponsored by Mrs. Joseph R. Farrington, wife of the delegate from the Territory of Hawaii; suspended 17 February 1947 when 84% complete; redesignated a large command cruiser, CBC-1, 26 February 1952; redesignated a large cruiser, CB-3, 9 September 1954; redesignated a ballistic and guided missile cruiser, CBG-1, 1 February 1958; converted at the Philadelphia Navy Yard; and commissioned 27 March 1960, Captain S.W. King in command.

HAWAII conducted an extensive shakedown cruise in the Atlantic and Caribbean, including operations with the newly converted cruiser JUNEAU (CBG-2), before returning to Philadelphia for repairs and alterations, including the addition of two open 5”/38 guns amidships, that lasted into September 1960. She then joined the Atlantic Fleet at Norfolk and conducted local operations with the fleet into early 1961.

On 10 February 1961 HAWAII sailed for her first deployment to the Mediterranean. After six months of operations with the Sixth Fleet, during which she visited ports in Spain, France, Italy, Turkey, Greece, and Lebanon, the cruiser returned to Norfolk on 16 August, where she was overhauled and prepared for transfer to the Pacific.

Sailing via the Panama Canal, HAWAII arrived at Pearl Harbor, her home port for the next 17 years, on 31 January 1962. On 15 March 1962 she sailed for independent operations in the Pacific as part of the American nuclear deterrent, returning to Pearl Harbor on 15 June. After a brief refit, on 1 September she sailed for the West Coast to join a task force built around the attack carrier KITTY HAWK (CVA-63) for a deployment to the Seventh Fleet area of operations. During this deployment she visited ports in the Philippines, Hong Kong, and Japan before returning to Pearl Harbor on 29 March 1963.

HAWAII conducted another independent deterrent patrol in the Pacific from 12 September to 19 December, spending Christmas 1963 in port before sailing on another deterrent patrol between 1 February and 5 May 1964. On 10 August she joined the RANGER (CVA-61) battle group for a deployment to the Far East, screening the carrier as she carried out combat operations off the coast of Vietnam in the wake of the Gulf of Tonkin incident, before returning to Pearl Harbor on 2 May 1965. A week later she sailed to Puget Sound for a year-long overhaul during which major upgrades to her electronics were made, principally the installation of the Naval Tactical Data System.

Emerging from Puget Sound in May 1966, HAWAII worked up in Hawaiian waters before deploying to the Western Pacific again, sailing on 16 July for PIRAZ duty in the Gulf of Tonkin. For the next six months, alternating with other missile cruisers and frigates of the Seventh Fleet, HAWAII tracked friendly aircraft, controlled combat air patrols, and coordinated Navy and Air Force operations over the Gulf of Tonkin and North Vietnam. On 22 December she launched two Talos missiles at North Vietnamese MiGs operating more than 50 miles inland, claiming one shot down. HAWAII returned to Pearl Harbor on 25 January 1967.

Overhauled at Pearl Harbor, HAWAII conducted local operations in Hawaiian and Eastern Pacific waters into the summer of 1967. Sailing for Vietnam on 10 August, after a visit to Subic Bay the cruiser commenced PIRAZ operations on 31 August. Line periods alternated with port visits to Subic Bay, Hong Kong, Kaohsiung, and Yokosuka; in port at Hong Kong when North Korea seized the USS PUEBLO (AGER-2) on 28 January 1968, HAWAII got underway to join American naval forces in the Sea of Japan. She then resumed operations in Gulf of Tonkin until returning to Pearl Harbor on 2 March.

HAWAII spent the next two years in local operations or conducting strategic deterrent patrols, one between June and September 1968 and another between January and March 1969. On 1 March 1970 she sailed for another Vietnam deployment, from which she returned on 15 September after a cruise that included several launches of Talos anti-radar missiles at North Vietnamese missile sites. HAWAII deployed to the Gulf of Tonkin again from 12 February to 20 August 1971 and for the sixth and final time between 20 January and 17 July 1972.

With the end of active American involvement in Vietnam, HAWAII resumed carrying out strategic deterrent patrols, sailing from Pearl Harbor on 15 January 1973 and returning to port on 15 April. She conducted another patrol between 15 July and 15 October, then entered Puget Sound for another major upgrade to her electronics, including digital fire control systems for her Talos and Tartar batteries. Completing this refit in August 1974, HAWAII resumed strategic deterrent patrols from Pearl Harbor, conducting two three-month patrols per year from 1975 to 1978.

Upon the completion of her final strategic deterrent patrol in December 1978, HAWAII sailed for the West Coast and reconstruction. Offloading her obsolete Polaris and Talos missiles, on 15 February 1979 HAWAII was decommissioned and entered Puget Sound for conversion to a fleet flagship. Her former Talos magazines were converted to berthing and command spaces, and Sea Sparrow launchers were installed where her Talos launchers had been, while her Polaris tubes - too small to carry Poseidon or Trident missiles - were filled with concrete to satisfy arms control requirements. Four Phalanx point-defense guns were also added.

Redesignated a guided missile cruiser, CG-43, on 1 January 1980, HAWAII was recommissioned on 30 June 1980 and conducted a shakedown cruise off the West Coast before sailing for her new home port of Yokosuka, Japan, where she arrived on 21 December to assume her new role as Seventh Fleet flagship. On 12 January 1981 she began to make the rounds of the Western Pacific, visiting ports in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Australia on a three-month cruise that concluded at Yokosuka on 15 April.

Local operations occupied the cruiser for the rest of 1981 and most of 1982. On 1 December 1982 she sailed for a Puget Sound overhaul during which she received eight quadruple armored box launchers for Tomahawk cruise missiles and sixteen Harpoon anti-ship missiles, returning to Yokosuka on 10 March 1983 and resuming Seventh Fleet flagship duties.

HAWAII spent the rest of the decade serving in the role of a fleet flagship - showing the flag throughout the Western Pacific, as well as carrying out frequent operations with the forward-deployed carrier MIDWAY (CV-41) and other Seventh Fleet units.

In port at Yokosuka when Iraq invaded Kuwait in August 1990, on 2 October HAWAII sailed in company with MIDWAY for the Persian Gulf and Operation DESERT SHIELD. Arriving in the Gulf on 2 November, HAWAII became flagship of all Coalition naval forces operating in the region. On 17 January 1991, she fired her first shots in anger since Vietnam when she participated in Tomahawk strikes against Iraqi targets as Operation DESERT STORM, the liberation of Kuwait, commenced. HAWAII continued to serve as Coalition naval flagship and conducted further Tomahawk strikes until the end of hostilities on 27 February. She continued to operate in the Gulf until 10 March, when she sailed with MIDWAY for Yokosuka.

Back at Yokosuka, HAWAII resumed Seventh Fleet flagship duties, which she carried out for the next several years. However, the post-Cold War “peace dividend” and her age finally caught up with her; on 15 May 1995 she was relieved at Yokosuka by the command ship BLUE RIDGE (LCC-19) and sailed for the United States. Touching at Pearl Harbor en route, on 6 June HAWAII arrived at Puget Sound for inactivation.

Decommissioned on 30 September 1995, HAWAII entered the reserve fleet at Puget Sound, where she lay for the next twenty years. Stricken on 15 June 2005, the old cruiser was finally sold for scrapping on 10 October 2015 and towed via the Panama Canal to Brownsville, Tex., where she was dismantled by International Shipbreaking Ltd.

HAWAII (CB-3/CBC-1/CB-3/CBG-1/CG-43) earned eleven battle stars for service in Vietnam and two battle stars for service in Southwest Asia.

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PostPosted: Mon Aug 07, 2017 12:02 pm 
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Is there a drawing for how HAWAII would have looked in that configuration?

Also, she pulled a lot of time in the line for a strategic asset.

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PostPosted: Mon Aug 07, 2017 2:31 pm 
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There's a drawing on page 401 of Friedman's cruiser book.

Talos cruisers were scarce, so I figured she would have been valued for PIRAZ duty, Polaris or no. Carriers were strategic assets, too, and there were plenty of them in the Tonkin Gulf. However, NTDS was even more important, and I noticed something wrong with the timing, so I have to make some revisions to this.

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PostPosted: Mon Aug 07, 2017 2:44 pm 
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If it was in the Tonkin Gulf, it would cover China and some Soviet Targets depending on which version they had.

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PostPosted: Mon Aug 07, 2017 4:41 pm 
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JUNEAU
(as built: CL-119, dp. 6,000; l. 541’6”; b. 53’2”; dr 16’4”, s. 32k.; a. 12 5”, 2 3-pdr, 24 40mm, 4 20mm; cl. JUNEAU)
(as rebuilt: CBG-2, a. 1 5”/54, 1 Terrier (40 missiles), 1 ASROC, 20 Polaris, 2 triple tt.; cl. JUNEAU)

Redesignated a ballistic and guided missile cruiser, CBG-2, on 1 February 1958, JUNEAU entered the Philadelphia Navy Yard for conversion to a missile cruiser armed with a twin Terrier launcher forward, an ASROC pepperbox amidships, and twenty tubes for Polaris ballistic missiles aft. Recommissioned 15 May 1960, JUNEAU conducted a shakedown cruise off the east coast and in the Caribbean, including the first underway test-firing of a Polaris missile, in the summer of 1960. Following post-shakedown overhaul at Philadelphia, JUNEAU sailed to her new home port of Norfolk, Va. for operations with the Atlantic Fleet.

Assigned to the FORRESTAL (CVA-59) battle group, JUNEAU deployed to the Mediterranean in January 1961. While in the Sixth Fleet area of responsibility, JUNEAU operated with American and other NATO naval forces, as well as conducting independent operations as part of the American strategic deterrent. During these operations she was almost constantly shadowed by Soviet trawlers or aircraft. The cruiser returned to Norfolk in August.

Overhauled at Norfolk, in late 1961 JUNEAU was ordered to the Pacific. Arriving at Pearl Harbor on 25 November, JUNEAU spent most of the next two decades conducting strategic deterrent patrols from that base, usually spending three months at sea and three months in port, using alternating Blue and Gold crews to maintain the operational tempo demanded of the ballistic missile cruisers.

By the late 1970s, JUNEAU’s Polaris missiles had become obsolete and her missile tubes were not large enough to accommodate the Poseidon and Trident missiles that had succeeded Polaris in the fleet. Accordingly, on 1 November 1979 JUNEAU terminated her final strategic deterrent patrol at Puget Sound, where her missiles were offloaded and her missile tubes filled with concrete for arms control purposes. She was redesignated a guided missile cruiser, CG-44, on 1 January 1980.

In April 1981 JUNEAU deployed to the Western Pacific as part of the KITTY HAWK (CV-63) battle group. During this deployment JUNEAU helped rescue Vietnamese refugees adrift in the South China Sea before returning to the United States in October. Local operations off the West Coast and in the Hawaiian operating area kept the cruiser occupied into the spring of 1983.

Her Terrier missile system outdated and her hull and machinery aging, JUNEAU was decommissioned at Pearl Harbor on 15 June 1983. Mothballed in the West Loch, she was stricken 30 September 1988; on 5 September 1992 she was sunk as a target off Kahoolawe by ships and aircraft of the Pacific Fleet.

JUNEAU (CL-119/CLAA-119/CBG-2/CG-44) earned five battle stars for service in the Korean War.


SPOKANE
(as built: CL-120, dp. 6,000; l. 541’6”; b. 53’2”; dr 16’4”, s. 32k.; a. 12 5”, 2 3-pdr, 24 40mm, 4 20mm; cl. JUNEAU)
(as rebuilt: CBG-3, a. 1 5”/54, 1 Terrier (40 missiles), 1 ASROC, 20 Polaris; 2 tt.; cl. JUNEAU)

Redesignated a ballistic and guided missile cruiser, CBG-3, on 1 February 1958, in the summer of 1958 SPOKANE was towed from her berth at Bayonne, N.J. to the Boston Navy Yard for conversion to a missile cruiser armed with Terrier surface-to-air missiles, ASROC, and Polaris nuclear-tipped ballistic missiles. Recommissioned 10 August 1960, she shook down off the Virginia Capes; a major machinery casualty during shakedown prevented her from joining the Atlantic Fleet until March 1961.

SPOKANE sailed for the Mediterranean on 10 April 1961, making her first strategic deterrent patrol as a unit of the Sixth Fleet. Dogged by Soviet ships and aircraft, she returned to Norfolk on 22 October and began preparations for transfer to the Pacific, reaching Pearl Harbor on 25 November in company with sister ship JUNEAU (CBG-2). Soon after she began to conduct strategic deterrent patrols from Pearl Harbor, a duty she carried out for the next eighteen years.

Redesignated a guided missile cruiser, CG-45, on 1 January 1980, SPOKANE completed her final strategic deterrent patrol in March 1980 and entered Puget Sound for the removal of her missiles and the demilitarization of her missile tubes in accordance with arms control agreements. She then conducted local operations off the West Coast until 15 February 1982, when she was decommissioned at Pearl Harbor. Stricken 30 September 1988, in October 1991 she was towed to sea for use as a target by ships and aircraft of the Pacific Fleet, finally being sunk by a torpedo fired by the submarine OLYMPIA (SSN-717) on 22 October 1991.


FRESNO
(as built: CL-121, dp. 6,000; l. 541’6”; b. 53’2”; dr 16’4”, s. 32k.; a. 12 5”, 2 3-pdr, 24 40mm, 4 20mm; cl. JUNEAU)
(as rebuilt: CBG-4, a. 1 5”/54, 1 Terrier (40 missiles), 1 ASROC, 20 Polaris, 2 tt.; cl. JUNEAU)

Redesignated a ballistic and guided missile cruiser, CBG-4, on 1 February 1958, FRESNO was towed from the mothball fleet at Bayonne, N.J. to the Boston Navy Yard, where she spent the next two years undergoing conversion to a missile cruiser armed with Terrier surface-to-air missiles, ASROC antisubmarine missiles, and Polaris ballistic missiles. She was recommissioned 2 January 1961 and, after shakedown off the East Coast, was transferred to the Pacific Fleet, arriving at Pearl Harbor in June 1961 to begin strategic deterrent patrols from that base.

FRESNO operated as part of the nation’s strategic forces until September 1979, when she put into Puget Sound to have her obsolete Polaris missiles removed and her missile tubes plugged with concrete. Redesignated a guided missile cruiser, CG-46, on 1 January 1980, she operated off the West Coast until decommissioned at Pearl Harbor on 31 December 1982. Stricken 30 September 1988, on 6 October 1990 she was sunk as a target by ships and aircraft of the Pacific Fleet.


RICHMOND
CBG-5, dp. 7,600; l. 550’; b. 52’; dr 17’6”; s. 32k.; a. 1 5”/54, 1 Talos (46 missiles), 1 ASROC, 20 Polaris, 2 triple tt.; cl. RICHMOND)

The fourth RICHMOND, lead ship of a class of ballistic and guided missile cruisers, was laid down 1 May 1958 by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Newport News, Va.; launched 10 November 1959, sponsored by Mrs. A. Scott Anderson, wife of the mayor of Richmond; and commissioned 4 December 1960, Captain J.M. Richardson in command.

RICHMOND conducted her shakedown cruise off the Virginia Capes, followed by repairs and alterations that lasted until June 1961, when she sailed for Pearl Harbor to begin strategic deterrent patrols. This duty lasted until July 1979, when she arrived at Puget Sound for inactivation. Her Polaris strategic missiles were obsolete and their tubes could not accommodate Poseidon or Trident, while her Talos surface-to-air missiles were equally obsolete. Deemed not worth modernization, RICHMOND was decommissioned and stricken 30 September 1979 and broken up for scrap at Puget Sound the following year.


TALLAHASSEE
CBG-6, dp. 7,600; l. 550’; b. 52’; dr 17’6”; s. 32k.; a. 1 5”/54, 1 Talos (46 missiles), 1 ASROC, 20 Polaris, 2 triple tt.; cl. RICHMOND)

The second TALLAHASSEE, a ballistic and guided missile cruiser, was laid down 7 August 1958 by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Newport News, Va.; launched 21 February 1960, sponsored by Mrs. LeRoy Collins, wife of the governor of Florida; and commissioned 15 March 1961, Captain T.L. Wood in command.

Following shakedown, TALLAHASSEE joined the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, her base for strategic deterrent patrols for her entire career. TALLAHASSEE completed her final patrol in May 1979; decommissioned and stricken 30 September 1979, the obsolete cruiser was scrapped at Puget Sound during the winter of 1979-80.


DOVER
CBG-7, dp. 7,600; l. 550’; b. 52’; dr 17’6”; s. 32k.; a. 1 5”/54, 1 Talos (46 missiles), 1 ASROC, 20 Polaris, 2 triple tt.; cl. RICHMOND)

The second DOVER, a ballistic and guided missile cruiser, was laid down 15 October 1958 by the Newport News Shipbuilding & Drydock Co., Newport News, Va.; launched 8 May 1960, sponsored by Mrs. Caleb Boggs, wife of the governor of Delaware; and commissioned 21 June 1961, Captain J.W. Dillon in command.

DOVER was sent to Pearl Harbor upon completion of her shakedown cruise and conducted strategic deterrent patrols from that base until March 1979, when she arrived at Puget Sound for inactivation. Decommissioned and stricken 30 September 1979, DOVER was subsequently scrapped at Puget Sound.

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PostPosted: Mon Aug 07, 2017 7:34 pm 
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good work

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PostPosted: Sat Aug 12, 2017 7:05 am 
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Theodore,

Outstanding, sir!


Wasn't able to find an official drawing/pic of any kind, but did find this:

Image


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PostPosted: Sat Aug 12, 2017 2:10 pm 
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Thank you. I'm not terribly happy with the last six and may make some revisions. Mike, that drawing is the one I used as the basis for Hawaii. Several pages later are the discussions and drawings of Juneau conversions and purpose-built ships.

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PostPosted: Sun Aug 13, 2017 8:15 pm 
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coughs

Image

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PostPosted: Sun Aug 13, 2017 8:51 pm 
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Nice, very nice indeed.

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PostPosted: Sun Aug 13, 2017 10:00 pm 
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Magnifique, mon commandant, très magnifique.

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PostPosted: Sun Aug 13, 2017 11:07 pm 
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That's a lot of ship to just cart Tartar around after Talos is phased out, and Polaris removed.

Why couldn't Talos launchers be converted to Standard?

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PostPosted: Mon Aug 14, 2017 4:40 am 
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Because after 30 years of deterrent patrols, the ship is worn out.

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PostPosted: Mon Aug 14, 2017 8:09 am 
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Johnnie Lyle wrote:
Why couldn't Talos launchers be converted to Standard?


I think its because Talos loaded (and was assembled) horizontally on what amounted to a production line. Standard was loaded vertically from a drum magazine (even the Belknaps and Leahys did that, it was just that the drum was at a shallow angle. So, changing from Terrier or Tartar to Standard just involved changing the missile in the drum. Changing from tartar to Standard would involve a major reconstruction of the ship to replace the assembly line with a drum. One of the reasons why the Talos ships did it that way was to restrict the conversion to above the main deck. There was talk of rearming the Terrier CLGs but when they were surveyed their machinery was found to be in "dire" condition and they pretty much needed to be re-engine. They were old ships and the money it would cost to wring another few years out of them would pay for a new missile ship.

There are two things I don't like about that Alaska design. One of them is the position of the aft Talos mount high up in the ship like that. The missile magazine and assembly line has to be horizontally behind it and that's burdensome. Also, I'm not sure there is enough space there fore it. I'd prefer to see the Polaris missiles amidships where the ship's motion is least pronounced.

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PostPosted: Mon Aug 14, 2017 10:27 am 
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Johnnie Lyle wrote:
That's a lot of ship to just cart Tartar around after Talos is phased out, and Polaris removed.

Why couldn't Talos launchers be converted to Standard?


Thus the flagship conversion with Tomahawks added once they became available.

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PostPosted: Fri Oct 13, 2017 9:43 pm 
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Just found this, and nice, very nice indeed...

Did the Italians get Polaris for Giuseppi Garibaldi in this timeline, or did they complete development of Alfa?

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PostPosted: Sat Oct 14, 2017 8:14 am 
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"production line'

Wasn't that the case with the related RN system ? IIRC, it was an assembly line from near the stern all the way to bow's 'erector/trainer'...

Even when it worked, it was a damage-control nightmare...

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